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1005C Human Biology 4 credits
A one-semester lecture/laboratory course for non-science majors. Students will study basic anatomy and physiology of major organ systems, and appreciate common clinical applications. Laboratory exercises will reinforce basic concepts, teach microscope skills, and supplement the lecture with exercises in genetics, histology, physiology and biochemistry. (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 2 hours)

1011C, 1012C Principles of Biology 4 credits
For majors. Introductory analysis of the various biological concepts at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. First semester: biochemistry of molecules, enzyme kinetics, cellular anatomy and physiology, cellular energetics and metabolism, cellular signaling; second semester: cellular reproduction, genetics, molecular biology, population biology, evolution, and comparative human physiology. Laboratory work, including dissections, complements the lectures. (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours)

1376R Biochemistry - Lecture 3 credits
Structure and function of biomolecules; kinetics and mechanism of enzymes; bioenergetics and metabolism; membrane structure and dynamics; signal transduction. Prerequisite: CHEM 1213C or permission of the instructor.

2206C Invertebrate Zoology 4 credits
An evolutionary approach to the study of form and function in invertebrate animals. Laboratory provides a survey of phyla, utilizing living and preserved specimens as selected representative species. Includes dissection and behavioral studies. (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C.

2206R Invertebrate Zoology 3 credits
The lecture-only portion of BIOL 2206C

2601 Human Development 2 credits
Focus on normal human embryonic and fetal development, as well as on congenital anomalies and birth defects. Fetal physiology and maternal-fetal interactions are presented, as well as other related topics, such as assisted reproductive technology. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C

2730C Human Anatomy 4 credits
A regional approach to the study of the human body, with special focus on human locomotory anatomy. Laboratory emphasizes mammalian (cat) dissection.  (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 4 hours). Laboratory fee. Prerequisite or co-requisite: BIOL 1012C or 1012Y.

3038C Ecology 4 credits
An interdisciplinary approach demonstrating the impact of geological, climatological, and evolutionary processes on the distribution of life on Earth. Emphasis on the concepts of niche and ecosystem, particularly in laboratory sessions employing living species.  (lecture:  3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C.

3038R Ecology  3 credits
The lecture-only portion of BIOL 3038C.

3207C Cell Biology 4 credits
Basic architecture of cellular organelles and components; dynamics of growth, nutrition, cell cycle, metabolism, and metabolic regulation; specialized cell functions. Laboratory accompanies lectures.  (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C. Prerequisite or co-requisite: CHEM 1046C.

3221 Nutrition 3 credits
Clinical nutrition, directed to common medical disorders, relevant physiology, nutrition¬al implications, and therapy. Nutrition in gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS are discussed.  This course does not count toward the Biology major. 

3230C Immunology 4 credits  
“Basic principles, theories, and current problems in immunology.  Emphasis on the development, functions and interplay of the various immune cells in health and disease, with particular attention to transplantation, vaccination, allergy, and autoimmunity.” (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee. Prerequisites: BIOL 1012C.

3230R Immunology—Lecture 3 credits
The lecture portion alone of the above course.

3241 Pharmacology 2 credits
Major aspects of pharmacology: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, mechanisms of action, physiologic effects, as well as adverse effects of drugs. Course is organ¬ized by drug class according to either organ system or therapeutic category.  Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C. 

3513C Genetics 4 credits
Course spans Mendelian genetics, chromosomal morphology, cell divisions, linkage, gene mapping, DNA replication, chromosome morphology,  gene mutation, chromosomal aberrations,  gene regulation, extranuclear genetics, behavioral genetics, epigenetics, and basic principles of biotechnology. Laboratory exercises complement lectures. (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C.

3521C Molecular Biology 4 credits
A comprehensive study of the gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Analysis of the molecular structure of DNA and the chromosome, RNA structure and transcription, RNA processing, translation into proteins, structure and organization of the genes and their regulatory regions, protein-DNA interactions, gene expression mechanisms.  Includes a weekly one-hour problem solving recitation.) Prerequisite: BIOL 3207C or BIOL 3513C or CHEM 1376.

3728C Human Physiology 4 credits
Physicochemical principles involved in life processes. Lectures and laboratory illustrate these principles in the physiological systems of humans. (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C.

3730 Reproductive Biology 2 credits
The course focuses on different aspects of human reproduction and reproductive health. Topics include spermatogenesis, oogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertile window and fertilization, breastfeeding, breast and ovarian disorders, infertility, assisted reproductive techniques (e. g. in vitro fertilization).   Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C.

3735 Biology of Women’s Health 2-3 credits
Biology of conditions affecting women’s health. Topics covered include reproduc¬tion, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Articles from medical journals and clinical trial data are discussed. Prerequisite: 1005C or 1012C.

3750 Medical Biochemistry 3 credits
Reviews major human metabolic pathways with focus on biochemical alterations that accompany a wide range of human diseases and conditions. Emphasis on advanced methods of molecular medicine for diagnosis and treatment of genetic and metabolic disorders.  Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C; Pre- or co-requisite: CHEM 1213C.

3830C Neurobiology 4 credits
Nerve cells and their organization into complex nervous systems; major concepts in neurobiology, including impulse conduction, synaptic transmission, sensory processing, motor function, and memory. Lab includes basic experimental methods and approaches in the neurosciences with a focus on the analysis of functional neuroanatomy, molecular markers, and behavior. (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee.  This course may be offered as a 3-credit lecture-only course. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C

4023C Microbiology 4 credits
Topics include prokaryotic cell structure and function, microbial nutrition, growth and control, microbial metabolism, bacteriophages, and microbial genetics. Laboratory exercises complement lectures. (lecture: 3 hours; lab: 3 hours) Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: BIOL 1012C.Pre- or  co-requisite: CHEM 1010C or 1045C.

4901, 4902, 4903, 4904 Independent Study
See Academic Information and Policies section. Laboratory fee on an individual basis.

4930- 4936 Current Topics in Biology  1-3 credits
Selected subjects from current developments in a variety of biological disciplines, such as kinesiology, public health, immunology and disease, medical genetics, environmental issues. Prerequisites: BIOL 1012C and permission of the instructor.

4947, 4948 Research Internship - Credits depend on number of hours devoted
Research project at an approved laboratory in New York under the joint guidance of the head of the laboratory and a faculty member at Stern College for Women. Prerequisites: BIOL 1012C and permission of the instructor.